ra aris p’ank’ari?

p’ank’ari aris sakants’elario nivt’ebi da p’ertsera, rom t’avdapirvelad sup’t’a grap’itis (magalit’ad Staedtler Pensil Terbaik Untuk Anak). tserilobit’ ket’deba scraping grap’itis gadatana media. t’umts’a, sup’t’a grap’itis tendents’ia advilad, dzalian rbili, rats’ bindzuri ep’ek’ti, rodesats’ media rubls sheadgens t’k’veni khelebi, da miighot’ t’k’veni khelebi bindzuri, rodesats’ gaimart’a. imis gamo, rom mashin is narevi grap’itis t’ikhis ise, rom shemadgenloba up’ro damdzimda. garda amisa, shemadgenlobis narevi gakhveuli k’aghaldis an khe.

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tqviis da grap’itis daitsqo dzvel saberdznet’shi. orive mists’es ep’ek’ti rukhi streaks, miukhedavad imisa, rom ts’ota meti shavi grap’itis. Graphite dzalian ishviat’ad gamoiqeneba manam, sanam gvian 1564 i sheits’avs didi raodenobit’ sup’t’a grap’itis Borrowdale, kheoba tsels tbis raionshi ch’rdiloet’ inglisshi. miukhedavad imisa, rom ch’anda, nakhshiris, mineralebi ar sheidzleba datsves, da igi dautovebiat’ gamouqenebeli shavi da advilad mokhsna meti tserilobit’ zedapirze. am dros termini grap’itis maints’ dabneuli da kalis, tqviis, da plumbago, rats’ nishnavs “, rogorits’aa tqviis” khasiat’is gat’valistsinebit’ t’it’k’mis igive. ak’edan gamomdinare, termini tqviis p’ank’ari (p’ank’ris) dghemde gamoiqeneba dghes. imis gamo, rom tek’stura aris zet’ovani, mots’ulobit’ gakhveuli mglis an mts’ire ts’ali t’unuk’is berbentuktongkat shekhveuli ert’ad t’okze. aravin its’is, vin pirveli idea, rom it’valistsinebdes shavi tqviis shevida khis konteineri, magram 1560 is, primitiuli p’ank’rebi miaghtsia evropis kontinentze.

ts’ota khnis shemdeg, upiratesoba danaghmuli iqo da ek’sporti akmaqop’ilebs mot’khovnebs mkhatvrebi; da me -17 saukuneshi, sheidzleba it’k’vas, angarishi ukve gamoiqeneba qvelgan. amave dros, p’ank’ari makers ek’sperimentis shavi upiratesoba atsarmoos uket’esi tserilobit’ instrumenti. sup’t’a da advilad mopovebuli, tqvias Borrowdale iqos samizne k’urdebi shav bazarze. imisat’vis, rom gadavlakhot’, britanet’is parlamentma miigho kanoni 1752 tsels it’valistsinebs, romelits’ sheidzleba gamoitsvios k’urdi daapatimres da gadaasakhles kolonia.

magram 1779 tsels, k’imikosi karl W. Scheele gamokvleuli da daaskvna, rom grap’itis ak’vs bevri skhvadaskhva k’imiuri t’visebebi goli. Graphite aris sup’t’a nakhshirbadis molekuluri shemadgenlobis tenderi. bolos 1789 tsels, geologebis germania, abraam vernerma mists’a sakheli grap’iti, romelits’ momdinareobs berdznuli sitqva graphein, rats’ imas nishnavs tserilobit’. amdenad, shinaarsi p’ank’ari nats’vlad tin.

mravali tslis ganmavlobashi English grap’itis kut’kheshi p’ank’ari mighebis industriashi, radgan es iqo sup’t’a sakmarisi gamoqenebis gareshe shemdgomi damushaveba. imis gamo, rom evropuli grap’iti iqo inferior, p’ank’ari mtsarmoeblebi ar ek’sperimentis ert’ad gaumjobesebis p’ank’ris. p’rangma inzhinerma nikola-Jacques Conte shereuli p’khvnili grap’itis t’ikhis p’ormirebis narevi shevida ch’khirebi, da datsves bukhrit’. mier skhvadaskhva t’anap’ardoba grap’itis t’ikhis, man shedzlo itsvevs, rom tsarmoebuli skhvadaskhva p’erebshi shavi prots’esi gamoiqeneba ak’amde.

me -19 saukuneshi, tsarmoebis p’ank’rebi shevida didi biznesis. Graphite gamoch’enas ramdenime adgilas, mat’ shoris ts’imbirshi, germania, da akhla moutsoda ch’ekhet’is respublika. germaniashi da shemdeg amerikis sheert’ebul shtatebshi, rigi k’arkhana gaikhsna. mek’anizats’iisa da masobrivi tsarmoebis p’asebi k’vemot’, da dasatsqisshi me -20 saukunis, mashinats’ ki, skolis bavshvebi gamoqenebit’ p’ank’ari.

t’avdapirvelad grap’itis p’ank’ari mier shesap’ut’i k’aghaldi motsqvetili sarch’eli gamiznuli. magram mogvianebit’ up’ro prak’tikuli da ep’ek’turi gza, romelits’ moits’avs mt’el grap’itis rod ori khis slats ditoreh uzrunvelqos adgili grap’itis Rod da shemdeg ert’ad.